What is the difference between enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition?

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What is the difference between enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition?

Enteral nutrition is administered through a feeding tube placed into the stomach or intestines. Parenteral nutrition is administered through a traditional intravenous (IV) line or via a central IV surgically placed during an outpatient procedure.

How is pediatric TPN calculated?

EXAMPLE TPN CALCULATION: Initial kcal goal is 450 kcal/d. Next determine protein needs. Goal for this infant is 2 g/kg = 10 g; 10g/500 cc = 2 %. 10 grams x 4 kcal/g = 40 kcal.

Why is enteral a better choice over parenteral nutrition?

In general, enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiological, simpler, cheaper and less complicated. However even nasogastric feeding needs care and the more complex types of enteral nutrition such as gastrostomy and jejunostomy need significant interventions.

What is the preferred enteral nutrition for infants?

Type of Enteral Feeding Human milk is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for feeding virtually all infants, including those born preterm. 19 Mother’s own milk is preferred, but when not available donor milk should be used to avoid delaying the initiation of enteral nutrition.

When should enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition be initiated?

Consensus Recommendations suggest initiating PN after 7 days for well-nourished stable patients, within 3 to 5 days in those who are nutritionally at-risk, and as soon as feasible in those with baseline moderate or severe malnutrition if oral intake or EN is not possible or sufficient.

Why is tube feeding better than TPN?

Tube feeding or enteral nutrition is a method of supplying nutrients directly into the stomach via a tube. It is a simpler and cheaper method than TPN. Moreover, it shows fewer complications and infections than TPN. The nutrients go through the GI tract in the same way when we ingest foods.

How is TPN calculated in newborns?

Example: A 3 kg infant starting TPN at 1.5 gram amino acids (AA)/kg/day is receiving 80 ml TPN fluid/kg/day. The infusion rate is 10 ml/hr, to give a total of 240 ml in 24 hours. 2. Calculate kcal delivered from protein: 1.5 × 4 3 kg = 2 kcal/kg/day from protein.

How do you calculate parenteral feeding?

An Example of Calculating Macronutrients for Parenteral Nutrition

  1. Proteins: 1.5-2 g/kg (based on wounds) 1.5*(50 kg) – 2*(50 kg) = 75 – 100 g protein/day.
  2. Fats: 250 mL bag of lipids/day * 2 kcal/mL = 500 kcal/day from fat.
  3. Carbohydrates: 1500 kcal/day – kcal protein – kcal fats = kcal of dextrose needed.

What are the disadvantages of parenteral feeding?

Complications Associated with Total Parenteral Nutrition Dehydration and electrolyte Imbalances. Thrombosis (blood clots) Hyperglycemia (high blood sugars) Hypoglycemia (low blood sugars)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of enteral nutrition?

Enteral nutrition

Method Advantages Disadvantages
Nasojejunal Short-term feeding Easily removed
Risk of perforation
Abdominal pain and diarrhoea unless continuous infusion of feed
Discomfort in nasopharynx

What are the four main routes of enteral feeding?

Nasogastric tube (NGT) starts in the nose and ends in the stomach. Orogastric tube (OGT) starts in the mouth and ends in the stomach. Nasoenteric tube starts in the nose and ends in the intestines (subtypes include nasojejunal and nasoduodenal tubes). Oroenteric tube starts in the mouth and ends in the intestines.

Where is parenteral nutrition administered?

“Parenteral” means “outside of the digestive tract.” Whereas enteral nutrition is delivered through a tube to your stomach or the small intestine, parenteral nutrition bypasses your entire digestive system, from mouth to anus. Certain medical conditions may require parenteral nutrition for a short or longer time.

What are the two types of parenteral nutrition?

What are the two types of parenteral nutrition?

  • Partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) is parenteral nutrition given to supplement other kinds of feeding.
  • Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is complete nutrition delivered intravenously to people who can’t use their digestive systems at all.

When should parenteral nutrition be discontinued?

Guidelines suggest that when tolerance to enteral nutrition is evident, parenteral nutrition should be weaned and discontinued when >60 percent of the patients’ needs are met enterally, although there are no data to support this practice [1].

What are the advantages of parenteral nutrition?

The major advantage of parenteral nutri tion is the provision of adequate nutrients in the face gastrointestinal dysfuncion. It is also useful in the face of fluid restric tion since caloric density can be in creased with a central venous catheter beyond that tolerated by the enteral route.

Why is heparin added to TPN?

The use of heparin in TPN when infused through a neonatal long line reduces the incidence of CRS without any adverse effects. ▶. It is also possible that by reducing the incidence of CRS it protects extremely low birthweight infants weighing less than 850 g from the progression of IVH.

How do you calculate newborn fluid?

  1. For infants 3.5 to 10 kg the daily fluid requirement is 100 mL/kg.
  2. For children 11-20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1000 mL + 50 mL/kg for every kg over 10.
  3. For children >20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1500 mL + 20 mL/kg for every kg over 20, up to a maximum of 2400 mL daily.

How do you calculate enteral nutrition?

On average, enteral formulas deliver between 1.0-2.0 calories/mL of formula. To calculate how much formula is needed, divide the total calorie needs by the amount of calories per mL of formula.

What is the most common complication of parenteral nutrition?

Fatty liver is the most common complication, whereas intrahepatic cholestasis or hepatitis are less frequent.

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